protocols

Celo governance proposal 0024: Q&A with Protocol Specialist Viktor Bunin


Our governance proposal on Celo to extend downtime grace period to 10 minutes passed with 99.9% community support.

Celo governance proposal 0024: Q&A with Protocol Specialist Viktor Bunin

By Bison Trails · Apr 1 2021

We asked Viktor about Bison Trails’ governance proposal to extend Celo’s downtime grace period, how the Celo governance process works, and what proposal 0024 means for the Celo community.


Q: What was the purpose of the governance proposal to update Celo’s downtime grace period? Why did we propose it, and what problem does it address?

To ensure network security, Celo launched with a grace period of one minute per day during which a validator could be offline before being significantly penalized by the network. This was an outlier among protocols. A one minute grace period was too short to safely perform maintenance or upgrade infrastructure without suffering significant reductions in uptime scores and reward penalties, which disincentivized performing maintenance and as such made the network less secure and more brittle.

Our proposal to slightly extend this window to 10 minutes was put forward to strengthen Celo while still upholding one of the most stringent uptime requirements among layer 1 protocols. As a Protocol Specialist I worked with two of our engineers who support Celo, Tushar Shah and David Michael, to write the proposal and code its implementation.


Q: Can you walk us through the specifics of the proposal?

The Celo protocol currently penalizes validators that do not sign for 12 consecutive blocks, the equivalent of about 1 minute of downtime. Our proposal added a daily “benevolent period” (since “grace period” is already taken) to the Celo core smart contracts, effectively extending the grace period’s window without changing the existing downtime window parameters. Unlike a change to the downtime window parameters, which would require a fork to the blockchain, this benevolent period can be added to the protocol without affecting validators on the network.

Put simply, we added a benevolent period of 108 blocks to the current grace period of 12 blocks, creating a grace window of 120 blocks total (the equivalent of about 10 minutes of downtime).


Q: Describe the overall Celo governance process. How does it work?

Celo has two tracks of governance: CIP’s and CGP’s.

Celo Improvement Proposals (CIPs) describe standards for the Celo platform, including the core protocol specifications, SDK, and contract standards. A CIP is a design document that should provide background information, a rationale for the proposal, a detailed solution including technical specifications, and, if there are any, a list of the potential risks for adopting the proposal. CIPs are worked on by Celo core devs and must be agreed upon through rough consensus.

Celo Governance Proposals (CGPs) describe details of a governance proposal to the platform, including any parameter changes. These can be proposed by anyone, and are voted on by token holders.

Our proposal required both a CIP and a CGP. CIP-0029 outlined the changes we were proposing and provided an implementation for those changes. We worked with Yaz Khoury, the Celo core devs, and the Celo community to gather feedback, make edits, and ultimately come to rough consensus on including these changes in the next Celo core contracts deployment. CIP-0029 included the code that made it possible to extend the downtime, by making the benevolent period a governable value without actually extending the grace period.

Then, we worked with Yaz and Yorke Rhodes IV on CGP-27. This governance vote set the parameter value required by CIP-0029 to extend the downtime grace window to 10 minutes. It was important to do this in two steps, because now this value can be changed easily through governance. If it were not, it would require a hard fork to change it. Proposal 24 was voted on by the community to set the parameter value.

The observant reader will notice that our proposal included three different numbers: the CIP is 0029, the CGP is 0027, and the proposal is 0024. This is because CIPs and CGPs are different processes—their numerical proximity is simply a coincidence. The CGP and proposal numbers are different because not every CGP becomes a proposal, so the proposal count will always trail the CGP count.


Q: What’s the long-term benefit for the Celo community? Does this only benefit large validators?

The short answer is that everyone in the community benefits from operating within a more secure network. The more nuanced answer is that this proposal will benefit the most secure validators the most. Previously, it was extremely operationally expensive for validators to maintain high security standards on Celo as compared to other networks due to its comparatively short downtime grace period, which meant fewer validators could opt into maintaining those high security standards. Now validators of all sizes can employ best practices to increase their security, by performing more regular maintenance and upgrades of their systems.


Q: The vote was overwhelmingly positive, with 99.9% of the community supporting the proposal. Why do you think there was such a strong showing of support?

We always say that community is the killer feature, and that becomes more true every day. We spent a lot of time working with the whole Celo community on this proposal, sharing our reasoning, gathering support, addressing feedback, and moving through the established processes together. Working collaboratively with the community to develop the proposal drove the community’s support for it. Here we must give a very special shout out to Yaz Khoury, Core Developer Relations at cLabs, for his incredible guidance and generous support throughout this process. Co-creating this proposal with him and the Celo community made it stronger and fostered community buy-in, so by the time the vote came, the choice was obvious.


Q: Anything else you would like to add about the process or the proposal?

This proposal feels particularly magical because this is Tushar’s, David’s, and my own first time passing a governance proposal that contributes code to a protocol’s core consensus. We’re technically now all Celo core developers!

This proposal took about eight months from outlining the initial concept to its passing, which is like a lifetime in crypto. This is both a good and a bad thing. Good, because you don’t want to rush foundational changes to protocols, but bad, because you still want to move fast. Over time, we think the concept of “protocol politicians” will become a reality, as they will be able to work as paid project managers to gather feedback, build consensus, and pass important changes to a protocol.


Interview by Mark Forscher


About Bison Trails


Pioneering Blockchain Infrastructure®

Bison Trails is a blockchain infrastructure platform-as-a-service (PaaS) company based in New York City. We built a platform for anyone who wants to participate in 25 new chains effortlessly.

We also make it easy for anyone building Web 3.0 applications to connect to blockchain data from 33 protocols with Query & Transact (QT). Our goal is for the entire blockchain ecosystem to flourish by providing robust infrastructure for the pioneers of tomorrow.

In January, 2021, we announced Bison Trails joined Coinbase to accelerate our mission to provide easy-to-use blockchain infrastructure, now as a standalone product line. The Bison Trails platform will continue to support our customers. With Coinbase’s backing, we will enhance our infrastructure platform and make it even easier to participate in decentralized networks and build applications that connect to blockchain data.


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